Model Question and Answers for APSC | Discuss reasons for the high prevalence of Anaemia in India. Suggest remedies.

Discuss reasons for the high prevalence of Anaemia in India. Suggest remedies.

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Discuss reasons for the high prevalence of Anaemia in India. Suggest remedies.

Ans:

  • One can look at Anaemia as nutritional and non-nutritional (Menstrual blood loss). Nutritional Anaemia can be generally known as something related to what we Lack of vital nutrients is the root cause of Anaemia.
  • Among all Anaemia, iron deficiency is the most common cause followed by vitamin B12 Apart from this, insufficient vitamin A, folic acid, and diseases like jaundice can also lead to Anaemia.
  • As far as non-nutritional Anaemia is concerned, it can be attributed to a lack of red blood cell (RBC) production in the body and loss of RBCs at a high rate. Unusual hormonal levels and chronic diseases, immune disorders, and infections among others are the common causes behind low RBCs.

 

Anaemia consequences:

  • It is imperative to introspect about these problems, which remain persistent, pervasive, and serious.
  • Anaemia has major consequences in terms of human health and development: it reduces the work capacity of individuals, in turn impacting the economy and overall national growth.
  • Developing countries lose up to 4.05% of GDP per annum due to iron deficiency anaemia; India loses up to 1.18% of GDP annually.

Reasons for the high prevalence of Anaemia in India and treatments:

  1. Iron and nutritional deficiency
  2. Poor maternal health
  3. Inappropriate practices in cutting umbilical cord
  4. Prevalence of malaria, hemoglobinopathies and fluorosis which reduces iron in the body
  5. Menstrual blood loss
  6. Worm infections in gut

 

Govt steps against Anaemia:

  1. In 2018, the Government of India launched the Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy with the target to reduce anaemia in women, children and adolescents in life cycle approach
  2. Iron-fortified rice through PDS, POSHAN 0
  3. Iron-fortified salt

 

The interventions for pregnant women under Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB):

  • Deworming
  • Prophylactic Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation including Adolescents girls (10-19 years)
  • Intensified year-round    Behaviour Change Communication (BCC)
  • Campaign including ensuring delayed umbilical cord clamping (Delayed umbilical cord clamping has been shown to improve iron stores in infants to 6 months of age)
  • Testing of anaemia using digital methods and point of care treatment
  • Addressing non-nutritional causes of anaemia in endemic pockets with special focus on malaria, hemoglobinopathies and fluorosis
  • Management of severe anaemia in pregnant women undertaken by the administration of IV Iron Sucrose/Blood transfusion
  • Providing incentives to the ANM for identification and follow- up of pregnant women with severe anaemia in high priority districts (HPDs)