Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 17.04.22

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 17.04.22

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 17.04.22

Q1. Which of the following global weather phenomena are considered good for Indian Monsoon?

1. La nina
2. El Nino
3. Positive Indian Ocean Dipole

Select the correct answer using the code given below

a. 1 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : b

Why is the Question ?

IMD predicts a normal monsoon. But India must take steps to meet the narrowing supply of fertilisers India is today facing a tight supply position, especially in phosphatic and potassic fertilisers, ahead of the Kharif sowings that will start with the monsoon.
The trio of Global phenomenon and monsoon:
1. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) predicts a normal southwest monsoon: Rainfall is expected to be 99 per cent of the historical average for the country from June-September.
2. The sanguine forecast is based on “La Niña” conditions prevailing and likely to continue through the four-month monsoon season.

3. La Niña is the opposite of El Niño — abnormal warming of the eastern Pacific waters usually causing heavy rains around South America, but also drought in the other western end whose effects percolate to India.
4. Besides La Niña, which is generally favourable for the Indian monsoon, the IMD is counting on a “neutral” Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD).
5. A “negative” IOD, wherein the eastern Indian Ocean waters off Indonesia and Australia turn unusually warm relative to the western part, is considered bad for the monsoon. The IMD believes that this time there will be La Niña and “neutral” IOD, at least till early in the season.

Q2. Which of the following are used as raw materials for the production of fertilisers?

1. Rock phosphate
2. Sulphur
3. Phosphoric acid
4. Ammonia
5. Potash

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1 and 4 only
b. 1, 3 and 4 only
c. 2, 3 and 4 only
d. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Answer : d

Why is the Question ?

Fertilizer’s crunch:

1. India is today facing a tight supply position, especially in phosphatic and potassic fertilisers, ahead of the Kharif sowings that will start with the monsoon.
2. The country imports its entire muriate of potash (MOP) requirements. While it does manufacture phosphatic and complex fertilisers, its raw materials and intermediates — mainly rock phosphate, sulphur, phosphoric acid and ammonia — are largely imported.
3. In the last year, global prices of finished fertilisers and ingredients have doubled or trebled. Before the war Russia was the world’s largest and its next-door ally Belarus the sixth-largest fertiliser exporter in 2020. War has only worsened things.
4. Hardly any new imports have been contracted in the past two months, with companies unsure whether the government will allow them to pass on the higher prices or absorb the burden through increased subsidy rates.

Q3. consider the following statements

1. Indian fertiliser production has remained nearly stagnant in last five years
2. While Imports has increased over the years

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : c

Why is the Question ?

Way Forward:
1. The government must announce a higher subsidy
2. It should immediately launch a campaign to promote single super phosphate and complex fertilisers. These contain less phosphorus or potash than di-ammonium phosphate and MOP, but farmers can be shown ways to apply them in the right dosage (along with farmyard manure, compost and organic wastes) without sacrificing crop yields.
3. The use of high-analysis fertilisers is a luxury for a country with hardly any natural gas, rock phosphate, potash or elemental sulphur reserves.
4. The government should also actively engage with countries such as Canada, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Senegal, Togo, and even Russia and Belarus, to contract more supplies, both for Kharif and the next rabi season.

Q4. Which of the following are weapons platforms of Russian origin?

1. The S-400
2. Sukhoi-30
3. Apache helicopter
4. T-90 tanks
5. AK-203

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1 and 4 only
b. 2, 3 and 4 only
c. 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
d. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Answer : d

Why is the Question ?

Russia supplies S-400 to India amid warfare
1. India ordered five S-400 missile systems from Russia for ₹39,000 crores in October 2018. The S-400 is capable of destroying a variety of aerial threats, including enemy fighter jets and missiles, at a range of 400km.
2. IAF is on track to bolster its air defence capabilities with the phased induction of the new system, said the second official. The S-400 comes with a mix of radars and missiles that allow it to knock down threats at various height and range bands.

Sanctions and Indian Military requirements:
1. The complications stemming from the wide-ranging sanctions slapped on Russia by the US and its allies on the back of the war in Ukraine have posed new challenges for the India-Russia defence relationship.
2. The global backlash against Russia has also prompted questions about the fate of new projects, spare procurement for existing Russian-origin weapons, maintenance and servicing of legacy equipment and creating an alternative payment system for defence trade with Russia amid the banking sanctions.
3. Russia accounted for 46% of India’s imports during the last five years, even though India made fewer purchases from Russia over the last decade.

4. Russian weapons exports to India fell 47% between 2012-16 and 2017-21, according to a report published by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) last month.
5. Still, two-thirds of India’s military equipment is of Russian origin.
Ongoing projects:
Moreover, procurements and projects in the works include the S-400 air defence systems, more Sukhoi-30 and MiG-29 fighter jets, frigates, T-90 tanks, and joint production of AK-203 assault rifles and, above all, the lease of a nuclear-powered submarine.

Q5. Which of the following countries was the largest arms exporter in the world in the period 2017-2021?

a. India
b. Saudi Arabia
c. Egypt
d. China

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) has released its latest report on Trends in International Arms Transfer, 2021. As per the report, India and Saudi Arabia emerged as the largest importers of arms between 2017-21. Both two countries accounted for 11% of all global arms sales. Egypt (5.7%), Australia (5.4%) and China (4.8%) were the next three largest importers respectively in the top 5.
The report placed India at the top of the list. 85% of India’s overall imports were from three countries. Russia (46%), France (27%), and the USA (12%) were the top three largest exporters of arms to India during the period.

Largest Arms Exporters in 2017-21
1. USA, with 39% share, retained its standing as the world’s largest arms exporters during 2017-21.
2. Russia (19%), France (11% China (4.6%) and Germany (4.5%) were among the top 5 largest exporters respectively.
3. India was 23rd largest exporter during 2017-21, with a share of just 0.2% of the global exports.
About SIPRI
SIPRI is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament. Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public. Based in Stockholm, SIPRI is regularly ranked among the most
respected think tanks worldwide.
SIPRI was established on the basis of a decision by the Swedish Parliament and receives a substantial part of its funding in the form of an annual grant from the Swedish Government. The Institute also seeks financial support from other organisations in order to carry out its research.