Model Question and Answers for APSC | Analyse the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism. (UPSC Mains-2021)

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Analyse the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism. (UPSC Mains-2021)

Ans : Terrorism, the calculated use of violence to create a general climate of fear in a population and thereby to bring about a particular political objective.
The complexity and intensity of terrorism
Terrorism has been practiced by political organizations with both rightist and leftist objectives, by nationalistic and religious groups, by revolutionaries, and even by state institutions such as armies, intelligence services, and police.
Causes:
1. Lack of development in certain groups and populations
2. Perceived and real alienation from general population for example Naxalism
3. Political misuse of valid grievance to promote extremism and capture power, for example Kashmir militancy is result of soft separatist politics
4. State sponsored terrorism example Pak led terrorism in India
5. History and geopolitics for example in Afghanistan and Middle East in general
Linkages and obnoxious nexus
1. Role played by global powers in terrorism fro example role of USA in rise of taliban in USA
2. Linkages between drugs, arms and Human trafficking for example war economy of Taliban, or extortion gangs of insurgents in northeast

3. Often local politicians are also hand in glove with terror organization if it fits into thier political goals for exmple few political parties in Northeast and J&K
Measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism:
1. Holistic strategy to deal with terrorism ensuring inclusion development and rights and entitlements
2. Security operation to eliminate armed militants
3. Curb funding and recruitment through concerted global actions
4. Counter radicalization and counter speech to counter extremism in society