Model Question and Answers for APSC | Examine the impact of globalisation on Indian tribal societies. (APSC Mains 2020 GS- I)

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Examine the impact of globalisation on Indian tribal societies. (APSC Mains 2020 GS- I)

Ans : The tribal population of India is around 8.6 percent of the total population of the country which is larger than any other country in the world. Nearly half of the world’s tribal population resides in India.
The impact of globalisation is strongest on these populations perhaps more than any other because these communities have no voice and are therefore easily swept aside by the invisible hand of the market and its proponents.
Examples:
The interference of multinational businesses in the tribal lands of Koraput, Bolangir, and Kalahandi has long been a cause of controversy.
The impact of globalisation on Indian tribal societies
1. Global corporations are trying to push traditional societies off their lands for forests, minerals, water, and genetic diversity.
2. Traditional sovereignty over hunting and gathering rights has been restricted as national governments bind themselves to colonial style of conservation that alienates local communities.
3. Big dams, mines, pipelines, roads, energy developments, military intrusions all threaten native lands.

4. Global rules on the patenting of genetic resources via the WTO has made possible the privatisation of indigenous peoples’ genomes without proper benefit sharing and consent
5. National governments making decisions on export development strategies or international trade and investment rules do not consult native communities.
6. Globalisation usually favours people with a lot of money, skills, and opportunities. It however may not be such a great thing for the poor, especially for tribals who have been the victims of unfairness manifested through the traditional poverty and economic disparities.
7. The eroding resource base and socio-cultural heritage of tribal population through a combination of development interventions like extinction of tribal languages and cultures, change in clothing and eating habits etc.
Positive impact:
1. Global NGOs working for tribal upliftment
2. Tribal handicrafts getting recognition across the world
3. Globally conservation agencies have recently recognised and pushed for role of tribal communities in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem restoration
4. The contact with outsiders helped in eradication of superstitious practices among tribals. Ex: Burial of new born along with dead mother in Khasi tribes has been stopped.
5. Tribals were one of the least educated groups. The entry of administration brought education standards to improve their lives. Ex: VanavasiKalyan schools, Eklavya Residential schools.
Through principles of Tribal panchsheel, environmental protection laws, Tribal sub plans and constitutional protection under constitution in 5th and 6th schedule India has been able to effectively develop tribal societies without encroaching on their lifestyles, however much is still desired on this front.