Model Question and Answers for APSC | What is the Naxalite movement? Discuss the factors which sustain it along with steps that can be taken to overcome it.

Model Question and Answers for APSC | What is the Naxalite movement? Discuss the factors which sustain it along with steps that can be taken to overcome it.

Ans : Former Prime minister Manmohan Singh said that Naxalism is the biggest threat to national security.
Naxalite, a general designation given to several Maoist-oriented and militant insurgent and separatist groups that have operated intermittently in India since the mid-1960s. More broadly, the term—often given as Naxalism or the Naxal movement—has been applied to the communist insurgency itself. The name Naxalite is derived from the town of Naxalbari (Naxalbari) in far northern West Bengal, which was the centre of a tribal peasant uprising against local landlords in 1967. Although the rebellion was suppressed, it became the focus of a number of communist-led separatist movements that sprung up in remote, often tribal areas in India—at first primarily in northeastern India but later more widely in other parts of the country.

Factors sustaining Naxalite movement:
Developmental Reasons:
1. Tribal exploitation - exploitation through mining, dams, infrastructure projects leading to issues of Jal, jungle and jameen.
2. Weak governance - the areas where naxal movement is active are poorly governed. These areas lack basic facilities like health, education etc.
3. Weak political inclusion - the 5th and 6th schedules of the constitution provide for tribal autonomy, but in reality, these are not realised in the true sense.
Security reasons:
1. Weak centre state, interstate and interagency cooperation - the naxals use the loopholes. For Eg, naxals use state boundaries effectively to hide.

2. Weak intelligence collection - the intelligence collection is weak. Allegation of misuse of power by security forces.
3. Geographically challenging terrain, especially forested areas in Chhattisgarh and Orissa.
4. Financial sources like mining, taxes on companies for the Naxals. Atrocities by Naxals especially against police informers etc.
It is the belief of the Government of India that through a holistic approach focusing on development and security-related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled