Model Question and Answers for APSC | Write on introduction and impact of western education under British rule in India.
Ans : Initially, the British East India Company was not concerned with the development of the education system because their prime motive was trading and profit-making. To rule in India, they planned to educate a small section of upper and middle classes to create a class “Indian in blood and colour but English in taste” who would act as interpreters between the Government and the masses. This was also called the “downward filtration theory”.
1. Educated Indians read about the American and the French revolution and filled the hearts of the Indians with the ideas of liberty, equality and justice.
2. Ideas of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau inspired the people to strive for political and social freedom.
3. The educated Indians also became acquainted with the concept of self-rule and democracy. Indians started to demand independence from British rule in order to establish democratic rule in India.
4. English became a common language. People from different regions could now communicate in English. This helped in breaking regional barriers and unified the country
5. As a consequence of the spread of Western educational system, new notions of reason, justice and utilitarian concerns of welfare began to mould the minds of the educated Indians in search of an answer to the problems of poverty and impoverishment that plagued Indian society of the late 19th century.
1. Introduction of western education had limitations too. It had disassociated Indian people from their traditional way of learning and living, their classical roots and indigenous knowledge.
2. Along with it faded Indian values, philosophies and traditions.
3. Through western education, the British sought to create a class of Indians who would be Indians in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.”
4. Since they wanted educated Indians for administrative posts, the English believed in educating only a section of Indians. They did nothing to spread education among the masses.