Model Question and Answers for APSC | Write Short note on the Following. (APSC 2006)

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Write Short note on the Following. (APSC 2006)

a. Criminalization of politics
b. Protem speaker
c. Casting vote
d. India Genome Project
e. Social Forestry
f. Environment Impact Assessment
g. Panchsheel in India’s Foreign Policy
h. Venture Capital

Ans: Criminalization of politics
The criminalization of politics means the participation of criminals in politics. Means that persons with criminal background contest in the election and get selected as a member of parliament or state legislature.
The increasing percentage of members of parliament who have a criminal background:
2004- 24%
2009-30%
2014-34%
2019-43%
The reason behind the criminalization of politics:
1. One of the most important reasons for the criminalization of politics is the increasing nexus between politicians and bureaucracy.

2. The increasing interference of politicians in administration may be regarded as another reason for the criminalisation of politics.
3. At the time of the election, political parties spend a huge sum of money buying the votes for another illegitimate purpose. The people don’t pay attention to the people to whom they are going to cast their vote, whether he has any criminal background or not.
4. The poor governance of the country also plays an important role in increasing the criminalization of politics. It doesn’t have the proper laws and rules for governing the procedure of the election.
Way Forward:
1. There should be an amendment in the RP act to debar those persons from contesting elections against whom any serious Nature of crimes is pending
2. A kind of awareness program should be started for voters to make them aware of their right to know the criminal background of the person to whom they are going to cast their votes.
3. The election commission should be given more rights to prevent the criminalization of politics. A penalty should be inflicted on those political parties who give tickets to those persons who have a criminal background. The increasing criminalization of politics and corruption hits the root of democracy. For regulating the affairs of the political party, it is essential to have a cleaner electoral process. Therefore, the electoral process is essential to strengthening the election commission.

Protem speaker
Pro-tem is a Latin phrase which translates to 'for the time being' in English and so the pro-tem speaker is a temporary speaker appointed for a limited period of time to conduct the works in Lok Sabha or in state legislatures. Pro-tem speaker is chosen for the conduct of the house when the Lok Sabha and legislative assemblies have been elected and the vote for the speaker and deputy speaker has not taken place.
Selection:
A pro-tem speaker is chosen with the agreement of the members of the Lok Sabha and legislative assembly. Usually, the seniormost member of the house is selected for the post, who then carries on the activities until the permanent speaker is chosen.

Duties of the pro-tem speaker
The main duty of the pro-tem speaker is to administer the oath of office to new members of the house. He also enables the House to elect the new speaker.
Once the new speaker is elected, the office of the pro-tem speaker ceases to exist. He also administers the floor test.
Casting vote
A casting vote is a vote that someone may exercise to resolve a deadlock. A casting vote is typically by the presiding officer of a council, legislative body, committee, etc., and may only be exercised to break a deadlock.
Under the Indian Constitution, the Speaker of Lok Sabha or the person acting as such cannot vote in the first instance; he/she has only a casting vote which he/she must exercise in the case of equality of votes.

India Genome Project
Taking inspiration from the Human Genome Project, India initiated the ambitious “Genome India Project” (GIP) in 2020. The GIP aims to collect 10,000 genetic samples from citizens across India, to build a reference genome. This is no mean feat, given that the genome contains all the genetic matter in an organism, i.e., the complete set of DNAs. Whole-genome sequencing and subsequent data analysis of the genetic data of these 10,000 individuals would be carried out. This would aid our understanding of the nature of diseases affecting the Indian population, and then ultimately support the development of predictive diagnostic markers. This is a landmark initiative, particularly because it would bring valuable addition to existing genome research, which has so far been limited to the Western context. It allows India to draw upon its tremendous genetic diversity, given the series of large migrations historically, and thus, add greatly to the current information about the human species.

Social forestry
Local communities use and manage forests throughout the world for subsistence, trade and cultural purposes. In Southeast Asia, close to 140 million people generate livelihoods from forests. Forest management practises have evolved over time to meet the changing needs of local people, the markets for forest products and a range of political interests

Social forestry offers an alternative form of forest management. It is an approach that balances the needs of local people with multiple wider and external interests like sustainable development. Social forestry:
 Engages communities living in and around forests in sustainable forest use and management
 Empowers communities by raising awareness, building capacity, developing policies with local people, and recognizing their rights and systems of knowledge
 Provides communities with benefits and access to forest resources in return for participating in sustainable forest management
Environment Impact Assessment
Environment Impact Assessment or EIA can be defined as the study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project on the environment. A decision making tool, EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits. In India it is mandated under the Environmental (Protection) Act 1986.
Salient features:
1. EIA systematically examines both beneficial and adverse consequences of the project and ensures that these effects are taken into account during project design.
2. It helps to identify possible environmental effects of the proposed project, proposes measures to mitigate adverse effects and predicts whether there will be significant adverse environmental effects, even after the mitigation is implemented.
3. By considering the environmental effects of the project and their mitigation early in the project planning cycle, environmental assessment has many benefits, such as protection of environment, optimum utilisation of resources and saving of time and cost of the project.
4. Properly conducted EIA also lessens conflicts by promoting community participation, informing decision makers, and helping lay the base for environmentally sound projects.
5. Benefits of integrating EIA have been observed in all stages of a project, from exploration and planning, through construction, operations, decommissioning, and beyond site closure.

Panchsheel in India’s Foreign Policy
Panchsheel was born around 68 years ago in response to a world asking for a new set of principles for the conduct of international relations that would reflect the aspirations of all nations to coexist and prosper together in peace and harmony.
Panchsheel, or the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, were first formally enunciated in the Agreement on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet region of China and India signed on April 29, 1954, which stated, in its preamble, that the two Governments “have resolved to enter into the present Agreement based on the following principles:
1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
2. Mutual non-aggression

3. Mutual non-interference
4. Equality and mutual benefit
5. Peaceful co-existence
Venture Capital
1. Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity and a type of financing that investors provide to startup companies and small businesses that are believed to have long-term growth potential.
2. Venture capital generally comes from well-off investors, investment banks, and any other financial institutions. However, it does not always take a monetary form; it can also be provided in the form of technical or managerial expertise.
3. Venture capital is typically allocated to small companies with exceptional growth potential, or to companies that have grown quickly and appear poised to continue to expand.